Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. It deals with the structures and functions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other bio molecules. The biochemistry extensively describes aspects of cell metabolism and the endocrine. Other areas of biochemistry include the genetic code (DNA, RNA), protein synthesis, cell membrane transport, and signal transduction.
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. Human anatomy, including gross human anatomy and histology, is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. Here students learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical students generally also learn gross anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies).
Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Naturopathic ideology focuses on naturally-occurring and minimally-invasive methods, trusting to the “healing power of nature.” Such treatments as “synthetic” drugs, radiation, and major surgery are avoided, and rejection of biomedicine and modern science in favour of an intuitive and vitalistic conception of the body and nature is common. Prevention through stress reduction and a healthy diet and lifestyle is emphasized. The philosophy of naturopathic practice is self-described by six core values.
The branch of medicine dealing with the application of medical knowledge to establish facts in civil or criminal legal cases, such as an investigation into the cause and time of a suspicious death. The basic knowledge related to this science is a part of the academic curriculum as one may have to give medico legal opinion in case of unforeseen incidences.
Medical microbiology is both a branch of medicine and microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. It includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. In the medical laboratory, these microbiologists also work in a sub department dedicated to parasitology. The discipline consists primarily of four major spheres of activity:
Psychology is a science, an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of human or animal mental functions and behaviors. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist. Psychologists are classified as social or behavioural scientists. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behaviour, while also exploring underlying physiological and neurological processes.
Psychological knowledge is applied to various spheres of human activity, including the family, education, employment, and the treatment of mental health problems. Psychology incorporates research from the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities.
Community Medicine also known as Social and Preventive Medicine refers to measures taken to prevent diseases, (or injuries) rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. This is includes one of the strong components known as Public health. Public Health is “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.” It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis and deals with population-level, rather than individual-level health issues.
Pathology is the study and diagnosis of disease through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids, and whole bodies (autopsies). Pathology also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes, called general pathology. Medical pathology is divided into two main branches, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Pathologists work with other doctors, medical specialty societies, medical laboratory professionals, and health care consumer organizations to set guidelines and standards for medical laboratory testing that help improve a patient’s medical care and guide treatment.
Massage involves acting on and manipulating the body with pressure and the target tissues may include muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. There are over eighty different recognized massage modalities. The BNYS curriculum teaches the Swedish massage “classic massage” which uses five styles of basic strokes like effleurage (sliding or gliding), petrissage (kneading), tapotement (rhythmic tapping), friction (cross fibber) and vibration/shaking.
Reflexology (zone therapy) is natural healing art based on the principle that there are reflexes in the feet, hands and ears and their referral areas within zone related areas, which correspond to every part, gland and organ of the body.
Naturopathy Diagnosis included two types of diagnostic methods used widely in Naturopathy. They are Facial Diagnosis and Iris Diagnosis.
Facial Diagnosis – The basis of facial diagnosis is the human organism, divided into the head and the body, is seen as the head being a compacted, condensed, more yang expression of the body, and the body is seen as an expanded, soft, more yin expression of the head. The basic principle of Facial Diagnoses is that “an internal organ of the body is revealed in the face as an inverse mirror image such that the condition of one located in the lower part of the body is revealed on the upper part of the face on the same side.
Iris Diagnosis – All the organs have their representation in iris at different clock positions.Any change in health condition will be represented in the iris by change in colour representing the stages of inflammation.Drugs /Medications are also represented by different colour. The diagnosis is about 70%accurate.
In conventional medical practice doctors use modern diagnostic procedure to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease. History taking ,general & systemic examination ,ordering of various imaging and blood tests which are a part of modern medicine practice also forms a part of training in the third year.
Both the methods of diagnosis are given equal importance and the naturopathic diagnostic methods is emphasised.
Yoga refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. It also refers to one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy. Raja Yoga, compiled in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and known simply as yoga in the context of Hindu philosophy, is part of the Samkhya tradition. Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras.
The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings, and is derived from the Sanskrit root “yuj”, meaning “to control”, “to yoke” or “to unite.” Patanjali’s writing also became the basis for a system referred to as “Ashtanga Yoga” (“Eight-Limbed Yoga”).
YOGA THERAPY is the science of applying the various techniques of yoga in a variety of illnesses and conditions, to facilitate optimal health, healing and awakening. Hence, it could be called a system of health care that helps treat human indispositions as naturally as possible, to alleviate pain and suffering through set of exercises, both physical and mental. Ideally, yoga therapy is preventive in nature, as is Yoga itself, while being curative in many instances, soothing in others, and restorative in most.
So, where traditional Yoga was primarily concerned with spiritual transcendence, yoga therapy aims at holistic treatment of a variety of psychological or psychosomatic disorders ranging from sinusitis and asthma to emotional distress
Chromotherapy, also called colour therapy or chromatherapy, is an alternative medicine method. Here colour and light is used to balance energy wherever a person’s body be lacking, be it physical, emotional, spiritual, or mental. The body has seven main chakras, which are spiritual centres located along the spine and are associated with a colour, function and organ or bodily system. As per chromotherapy, these colours can become imbalanced and result in physical diseases but these imbalances can be corrected through using the appropriate colour as a treatment.
Magnet therapy, magnetic therapy, or Magnetotherapy, is an alternative medicine practice involving the use of static magnetic fields. It advocates the principle that, subjecting certain parts of the body to magneto static fields produced by permanent magnets/ electromagnets has beneficial health effects. Magnet therapy is the application of the magnetic field of electromagnetic devices or permanent static magnets to the body for purported health benefits. These benefits may be specific, as in the case of wound healing, or more general, as for increased energy and vitality, since malaise is sometimes described as “Magnetic Field Deficiency Syndrome”.
Pharmacology is a basic science of medicine which deals with the study of drugs. The tools of this sciences are active compounds by which physiological and biological processes can be influenced. it includes the study of history, source, physical & chemical properties, biochemical & physiological effects, mechanism of action & therapeutic uses of drugs. It is involved in the teaching of clinical guidelines for safe & effective use of drugs for prevention of disease & relief of symptoms.
Hospital Management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of hospitals and health care systems. Effective leadership and management are essential to scaling up the quantity and quality of health services and to improving population health.
Research Methodology: The primary purpose for applied research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of the methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of healthcare delivery systems in Naturopathy and Yoga. In BNYS curriculum the research methodology refers to the description of process, or may be expanded to include a philosophically coherent collection of theories, concepts or ideas as they relate to the discipline of Naturopathic Medicine and Yoga to develop the flair for adopting and developing evidence based medical practice among the students and thereby contribute to the development of the system.
Physical therapy also known as physiotherapy is a health profession that assesses and provides treatment to individuals to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and function throughout life. This includes providing treatment in circumstances where movement and function are threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors. Physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment/intervention, facilitation and rehabilitation. This encompasses physical, psychological, emotional, and social well being.
Nutrition is the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance i.e. replacement of tissues. The macronutrients or “big” nutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The micronutrients or “little” nutrients are the vitamins and minerals that we need to be healthy.
Dietetics is the science of managing food and nutrition to promote health. A relatively new profession, this field has gained importance with the realization that inappropriate eating habits can lead to many major diseases and that quality of life depends on the quality of food we eat. Herbology is also known as botanical medicine, medical herbalism, herbal medicine, and phytotherapy is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts.
Hydrotherapy, formerly called hydropathy involves the use of water for pain-relief and treating illness. The term hydrotherapy itself is synonymous with the term water cure as it was originally marketed by practitioners and promoters in the 1800s. According to the International SPA Association (ISPA), hydrotherapy has long been a staple in European spas. It’s the generic term for water therapies using jets, underwater massage and mineral baths (e.g. balneotherapy, Kneipp treatments, Scotch douche, Swiss shower, and thalassotherapy) and others. It also can mean a whirlpool bath, hot Roman bath, hot tub bath, Jacuzzi, cold plunge and mineral bath. These treatments use physical water properties, such as temperature and pressure, for therapeutic purposes, to stimulate blood circulation and treat the symptoms of certain diseases.
The department has responsibility for teaching obstetrics and gynaecology to clinical students. Obstetrics is the medical practice dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period. Gynaecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina, and ovaries). Literally, outside medicine, it means “the science of women” – it deals with women’s complaints—gynaecological diseases, fertility, pregnancy, contraception, etc.